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Passage 21 (中国人民大学)
时间: 2013-06-03     来源: 匿名     此新闻被浏览: 159

  Part A (10 points)

  Direction: Translate the following English passage into Chinese on your ANSWER SHEET.

The Basis for Social Order

  Man, said Aristotle, is a social animal. This sociability requires peaceful congregation, and the history of mankind is mainly a movement through time of human collectivities that range from migrant tribal bands to large and complex civilizations. Survival has been due to the ability to create the means by which men in groups retain their unity and allegiance to one another.

  Order was caused by the need and desire to survive the challenge of the environment. This orderly condition called the “state”, and the rules that maintained it, the “law”. With time the partner to this tranquility, man marched across the centuries of his evolution to the brink of exploring the boundaries of his own galaxy. Of all living organisms, only man has the capacity to interpret his own evolution as progress. As social life changed, the worth and rights of each member in the larger group, of which he was a part, increased. As the groups grew from clans to civilizations, the value of the individual did not diminish, but became instead a guide to the rules that govern all men.

  Part B (10 points)

  Direction: Translate the following Chinese passage into English on your ANSWER SHEET.

  各学科的发展日新月异,令人称奇,但衡量知识、能力的方法却依然如故,非常原始。迄今为止,教育工作还没有找到比考试更有效、更可靠的方法,着实有点离奇。尽管有不少人认定,考试能衡量出一个人的知识水平,但实际情况恰恰相反,这是有目共睹的。要想考察一个人死记硬背的本事和在极大压力下快速答题的技巧,考试或许是个不错的办法。然而,要想了解一个人的禀赋资质和实际能力如何,考试是考不出名堂来的。

  KEY

  Part A

社会秩序的基础

  亚里斯多德说,人是社会性的动物。这种社会性要求人们和平共处,人类历史主要就是人类群体在时间长河中从游牧部落到复杂的文明社会的集合运动的演进过程,(这些群体中的)幸存者能幸存下来的原因就在于:他们有能力创造一种手段,从而能使他们所在群体中的人保持团结并相互效忠。

  出于必须和渴望战胜环境的挑战,人类建立了秩序。这样一种有秩序的状态就称作“国家”,而维持国家存在的规则就叫做“法律”。伴随着这些由法律和秩序建立起来的安宁、平静的是时间,在时间的流逝中,经过了数世纪的进化,人类终于进入了探索他自己所在的星系的时刻。在所有的生物中,只有人类的进化能被视为进步。当社会发生变革时,每个人在其所生活的大群体中的价值和权力都会增加。当人类群众从部落渐渐变成文明社会时,个人价值并未减少,相反,它成为了统治所有人的法令的指导。

  Part B

  Contrast to the rapid and astonishing development in various subjects, the way of measuring knowledge and ability remains as before, rather primitive. So far, there has been no way which is more effective and reliable than exams in education, which seems kind of queer. Though some people believe that exams could weigh one's knowledge level, the truth is just the opposite, as is obvious to all. Exams may be a not-so-bad solution to test the ability to remember something by rote or to answer questions quickly yet under great pressure, but they are of vain if you want to know about the gift, intelligence or practical abilities of a person.

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