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Passage 20 (东北大学)
时间: 2013-06-03     来源: 匿名     此新闻被浏览: 169

  Direction: Translate the underlined sentences in the following passage into Chinese and write your translation clearly on the Answer Sheet.

  (96)Perhaps the most striking quality of satiric literature is its freshness, its originality of perspective. Satire rarely offers original ideas. In stead, it presents the familiar in a new form. Satirists do not of fer the world new philosophies. (97)What they do is look at familiar conditions from a perspective that makes these conditions seem foolish, harmful, or affected. Satire jars us out of complacence into a pleasantly shocked realization that many of the values we unquestioningly accept are false. Don Quixote. makes chivalry seem absurd; Brave New World ridicules the pretensions of science; A Modest Proposal dramatizes starvation by advocating cannibalism. None of these ideas is original. Chivalry was suspect before Cervantes, humanists objected to the claims of pure science before Aldous Huxley, and people were aware of famine before Swift. (98) It was not the originality of the idea that made these satires popular. It was the manner of expression, the satiric method, that made them interesting and entertaining. Satires are read because they are aesthetically satisfying works of art, not because they are morally wholesome or ethically instructive. (99) They are stimulating and refreshing because with common sense briskness they brush away illusions and secondhand opinions. With spontaneous irreverence, satire rearranges perspectives, scrambles familiar objects into incongruous juxtaposition and speaks in a personal idiom instead of abstract platitude. (100)Satire exists because there is need for it. It has lived because readers appreciate a refreshing stimulus, an irreverent reminder that they live in a world of platitudinous thinking, cheap moralizing, and foolish philosophy. Satire serves to prod people into an awareness of truth, though rarely to any action on behalf of truth. Satire tends to remind people that much of what they see, hear, and read in popular media is sanctimonious, sentimental, and only partially true. Life resembles in only a slight degree the popular image of it. Soldiers rarely hold die ideals that movies attribute to them, nor do ordinary citizens devote their lives to unselfish service of humanity. Intelligent people know these things but tend to forget them when they do not hear them expressed.

  KEY

  96.讽刺文学最显著的特征或许就在于它的新颖性与独特的视角。它很少提供有独创性的观点。相反,它用一种新的形式来呈现我们熟悉的事物。

  97.讽刺文学家所做的就是从另一个角度来观察熟知的情形从而使之看起来是愚蠢的、有害的或做作的。它使陶醉在沾沾自喜中的我们受到强烈的震撼,从而意识到很多我们毫不怀疑地接受的价值实际上是错误的。

  98.讽刺文学之所以受欢迎并不是因为其观点的独特性,而是因为它的表达方式和讽刺的手段使之显得有趣。阅读讽刺文学不是因为其思想的健康或是有教育意义,而是因为它们是美学角度上一件令人满意的艺术作品。

  99.它们很刺激,也令人耳目一新,因为它们以一种常识的敏锐扫除了一切幻想和道听途说的观点。它们天生地蔑视一切,要重整人们的视角,搅乱熟悉的事物使之不和谐,而且这些都是通过个性化的习语而非抽象的陈词滥调来表达的。

  100.讽刺文学的存在是因为有对它的需求。他之所以延续下来是因为它给读者带来耳目一新的刺激,毫不留情地提醒着他们生存的世界是一个充满陈腐的思想、廉价的道德和愚蠢的哲学的地方,而这些恰恰赢来读者的欣赏。

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